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Unit 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training
UNIT 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training
STUDENT NAME AND ID
Pearson BTEC Level 5 Diploma in Education and Training
2022/2023 (September 22 Cohort)
Unit Number and Name
UNIT 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training (A/505/0818)
Analysis of Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training Sector
Type of Assignment
th October 2022
Summative Submission Date
This is to confirm that this submission is my own work, produced without any external help except acceptable support from my lecturer. It has not been copied from any other person’s work (published or unpublished), and has not previously been submitted for assessment either at GBS or elsewhere. I confirm that I have read and understood the ‘
GBS Academ i c Good Practice a n d Academic Misconduct: Policy and Procedu r e ’ available on Moodle.
I confirm I have read and understood the above Student Declaration.
Student Name (print)
Unit 3 Assessment Specification
Your assignment must be presented in an academic format, supported by credible sources using the Harvard reference guide.
Task 1 – Learning theories
LO1 - To demonstrate understanding of applying theories, principles and models of learning in education and training environment.
Individual PowerPoint presentation – (AC 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 & 1.4)
In order to deepen your understanding of learning theories, prepare a 15-minute presentation in which you:
Explain how theories, principles, and learning models can be used to promote teaching and learning.
Then, choose a model of learning preference and illustrate how it promotes inclusive teaching and learning.
Task 2 – Communication
LO2 – To develop understanding of applying theories, principles and models of communication in education and training.
Individual-written task: A case study approach (AC 2.1 & 2.2)
Drawing on your experience,
choose one of the given case studies, then adopt appropriate interventions that allow you to mitigate the complex situation using practical communication strategies. (400 words)
Case studies (Access the summative assessment section under the assessment tile on Moodle.): A classroom shamble | A dire situation | The language barrier | Sports spirit
Your explanation must highlight theories, principles and the models of communication that allow you to mitigate the circumstances and achieve your goals as a teacher, trainer or a leader.
Task 3 – Assessment
LO3 - To develop understanding of applying theories, principles and models of assessment in education and training
Individual task (AC 3.1 & 3.2)
Reflect on your experience and select relevant principles, theories, and assessment models to demonstrate how they enable effective assessment practices.
Present your work in a tabular format.
Task 4 – Curriculum
LO4 – To demonstrate understanding of applying theories and models of curriculum development within own area of specialism Individual written task (AC 4.1 & 4.2)
Write a report in which you illustrate how theories and models of curriculum impact curricula development in your area of specialism.
Task 5 – Reflection and Evaluation
LO5 – To demonstrate understanding of applying theories and models of reflection and evaluation to review your own practice.
Individual written task (5.1 & 5.2)
Select a memorable incident from your practice and reflect on it using a reflective model.
To review the effectiveness of your practice, use an appropriate evaluation model to evaluate the programme within your area of specialism.
Assignment submission format (Report Structure)
Use a Cover Page, Title Page, Contents Page for the report.
The main body of the report should be concise, formal research report. Use at least 1.5 spacing and Times New Roman/Arial font size 12.
Use headings, paragraphs, and subsections as appropriate.
Across the report you are required to provide various examples to enhance the credibility, currency, and depth of the answer.
Provide conclusion, evaluation, and recommendation. Use Appendices (if any).
Use the Harvard Referencing Style for intext citation and reference list. Provide a reference list using the Harvard referencing system.
Respect the word limit (+/- 10%) excluding the cover page, contents page, list of references and appendices.
Note: The required submission format for this section of assignment is a research educational report format. Your submission will be word-processed, written work with clear indication of the unit number and title, the relevant task being addressed, your name and registration number.
Unit 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training
Academic Integrity (Note to avoid Plagiarism)
Academic integrity is a fundamental expectation for all college/university students and while it is acknowledged that mitigating circumstances might be raised as factors in student behaviour, cheating cannot be disregarded. GBS definition of plagiarism, as contained in GBS Academic Good Practice and Academic Misconduct Policy and Procedure, has been expanded to make explicit that copying from texts or web sources and copying work from other students constitutes plagiarism. Explain how theories, principles, and learning models can be used to promote teaching and learning
“Plagiarism is the act of taking or copying someone else’s work, including another student’s, and presenting it as if it were your own. Plagiarism is said to occur when ideas, texts, theories, data, created artistic artefacts or other material are presented without acknowledgement so that the person considering this work is given the impression that what they have before them is the student’s own original work when it is not. Plagiarism also occurs where a student’s own work is re-presented without being properly referenced. Plagiarism is a form of cheating and is a disciplinary offence.”
Plagiarism is easy to avoid by making sure you reference all of the sources of material that you use in the completion of your work. Pearson has developed Guidelines on
Harvard Referencing which are available in Academic Support Area for Students on Moodle (VLE) as well as on respective unit pages.
If you are concerned about referencing techniques, please draw the matter to your Unit Lecturer or Academic Support Team on
firstname.lastname@example.org so that you may receive extra advice.
Group coursework may be designed so that the contribution of each student is identifiable, but inclusion of plagiarised material is still the responsibility of the whole group. All members of the group should exercise vigilance to ensure that work is properly referenced; in groupwork, students have a shared responsibility for the assignment.
Beere J –
The Perfect (Ofsted) Lesson (Crown House Publishing, 2010) ISBN 9781845904609
Gadsby C –
Perfect Assessment for Learning (Independent Thinking Press, 2012) ISBN 9781781350027
Gould J – Learning Theory and Classroom Practice in the LLLS (2012), Learning Matters, 2012 ISBN 9780857258175
Gravells A and Simpson S –
Planning and Enabling Learning in the Lifelong Learning Sector
(Learning Matters, 2010) ISBN 9781844457984
Kidd W & Czerniawski G – Successful Teaching 14-19 (2011), Sage Publications ISBN 9781848607125
Petty G –
Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach, Second Edition
Thornes, 2009) ISBN 9781408504529
Powell S and Tummons J –
Inclusive Practice in the Lifelong Learning Sector (Achieving QTLS), 1st Edition (Learning Matters, 2011) ISBN 9780857251022 Roffey-Barentsen J and Malthouse R– Reflective Practice in the Lifelong Learning
Sector (Achieving QTLS), 1st Edition (Learning Matters, 2009) ISBN 9781844451845 Tummons J – Curriculum Studies in the LLLS, Learning Matters, 2011 ISBN 978184441937
Wallace S –
Teaching, Tutoring and Training in the Lifelong Learning Sector (Achieving QTLS), 4th Edition (Learning Matters, 2011) ISBN 9780857250629
Wallace S –
The Lifelong Learning Sector Reflective Reader Learning Matters, 2010 ISBN 9781844452965 Explain how theories, principles, and learning models can be used to promote teaching and learning Journals/ magazines /newspapers Unit 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training
Professional/vocational specific journals
Times Educational Supplement - FE Focus
Times Higher Education - weekly newspaper
Websites www.bis.gov. u k – Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) www.crll.org. u k – Centre for Research in Lifelong Learning
OFSTED GRADING CRITERIA FOR TEACHERS/TRAINERS IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR
In order to gain a grade 3 or above, trainee teachers must also have evidence that they have fulfilled all the Professional Standards for Teachers, Tutors and Trainers in the Lifelong Learning Sector.
Outstanding (Grade 1)
Good (Grade 2)
Requires Improvement (Grade 3)
An outstanding student teacher is not afraid to take risks when trying to make teaching interesting and has the flexibility and confidence to deal with
the unexpected and ‘grab the moment’. A passion for learning, innovation, creativity, and lateral thinking are intrinsic facets of their practice. The student teacher is well-respected by staff and students and demonstrates a clear capacity for reflecting on what they need to do in order to become an outstanding fully qualified teacher
A good student teacher shows a willingness to try out a range of approaches to teaching and learning, knowing how to learn from success and ‘failure’, and know when/whom to ask for support both in trying out new approaches and in evaluating how well they work. The student teacher demonstrates a clear capacity to become an outstanding teacher.
A satisfactory student teacher demonstrates a limited but adequate range of teaching and assessment strategies. The student teacher will recognise s/he may need some help/support with aspects of his/her teaching and is willing to seek out and act on advice given to work towards becoming a good teacher.
Teach challenging and inclusive lessons and ensure all learners achieve the intended learning outcomes. Monitor learning carefully, provide detailed feedback, involve individual learners in setting their own targets, and adapt approaches and methods as required.
Apply own depth of subject knowledge in ways which meet the individual needs of all learners. Demonstrate skilled use of questioning and effective management of classroom discussion and debate.
Fully exploit possibilities to promote
learners’ understanding and appreciation of social and cultural diversity. Support
Ensure all learners are sufficiently challenged and achieve the intended learning outcomes by teaching in an engaging and challenging way, making creative use of resources. Employ a range of different assessment methods which are matched to outcomes and provide feedback to learners based on their individual needs. Shows flexibility and adaptability in teaching methods and use subject knowledge to inform their approaches. Work effectively with other professionals in supporting
Teach lessons in which learners make progress or consolidate their learning across a range of different contexts (e.g., ages, groups, levels). Demonstrate secure subject knowledge that develops learners’ understanding and skills, and respond to learners’ questions in a way which enables them to meet outcomes. Set expectations for behaviour, manage the learning environment and resources and match teaching and learning activities to intended learning outcomes. Monitor learners’
learners to be able to explain how teaching helped them to progress.
learners’ progress. Explore possibilities to develop learners’ understanding and appreciation of social and cultural diversity.
progress and provide feedback which aids progress. Begin to develop learners’ wider understanding and appreciation of social and cultural diversity.
Demonstrate a clear and deep understanding of how to plan for progression; identify stages in learning and different rates of progress for their learners and use this to plan ‘steps in
learning’ and approaches to teaching which deal with barriers to learning and which demonstrate depth of knowledge and subject pedagogy. Provide evidence of how records of progress monitoring have been used to plan innovative personalised learning experiences.
Demonstrate clear links between outcomes, approaches and assessment strategies and integrate innovative approaches to Every Child Matters/Early Literacy Materials (ECM/ELM), and social and cultural diversity. Provide evidence of deep reflection and selfidentify challenging targets for professional development which takes full account of feedback from colleagues/peer
Plan lessons that take account of the individual needs of learners, through the setting of differentiated learning outcomes, clearly matched to teaching and learning approaches.
Demonstrate depth of subject knowledge by clearly recognising how to deal with any barriers to learning. Plan for progression by setting lessons in a clear sequence. Provide clear evidence of understanding the need to take responsibility for their own professional development via selfevaluation and target setting.
Work with colleagues to refine and monitor progress and provide evidence of implementation, review and critical reflection.
Plans lessons that set clear learning outcomes and indicate how the planned activities will enable learners to meet these. Show how progress and achievement will be monitored, and recognise potential barriers to learning (e.g., low level of literacy/numeracy). Evaluate their teaching and show an understanding of the impact of its effectiveness on learners. Take some responsibility for their own professional development, drawing on targets set by trainers and from personal target setting and reflection.
Describe the stages in progress through a topic, set of ideas and concepts, or a sequence of teaching. Explain what they would expect learners to be able to do and provide examples of lessons and learners by way of illustration as well as
Give examples of how they have secured progression for groups of learners through a sequence of lessons and explain how they know that learners have made progress.
Demonstrate their understanding of
Explain how the training has helped them improve their teaching, how their lesson planning fits into a sequence that will enable learners to make progress and explain how they monitor and
being able to identify barriers to learning and how these
barriers to learning, how these can be
assess learners’ progress and achievements. Show awareness
were/can be overcome. Discuss
individual learners’ progress attainment and achievement in detail, demonstrate an understanding of the range of professionals that contribute to learners’ overall development, and their place in the ‘bigger picture’. Show an in depth understanding of Every Child Matters/Early Literacy
Materials (ECM/ELM) and how to promote and exploit the potential provided by social and cultural diversity.
overcome in their subject, and why particular teaching and learning approaches work particularly well in their subject. Give examples of working with a wider range of professionals to secure the overall development of learners.
Demonstrate a secure understanding of the implications of ECM/ELM and social and cultural diversity and apply this to their own teaching. Unit 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training
of barriers to learning, such as low levels of literacy or numeracy, the likely impact on their subject and some ideas for dealing with this.
Know who they need to turn to for expert advice on learners’ overall development as well as specific vulnerable protection and safeguarding issues (where relevant). Demonstrate a secure understanding of ECM/ELM and of social and cultural diversity.
Learning outcomes, assessment criteria and unit amplification
To pass this unit, the learner needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria determine the standard required to achieve the unit.
Understand the application of theories, principles and models of learning in education and training
Analyse theories, principles and models of learning
□ Theories, principles and models
e.g. procedural v declarative knowledge (Anderson) –skills development (Gagne), scaffolding learning (Bruner/Vygotsky), knowing that/knowing how (Ryle), Inductive (Bruner) v deductive (Ausubel) approaches, situated approaches to learning (Lave and Wenger), banking concept of education (Freire), competency-based models, learning as change in behaviour, learner-based models (Dewey/Rogers), constructivist approaches, Formal v nonformal learning (Erraut).
Paired learner poster creation / presentations on theories/theorists
Explain ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment
□ Applied theories, principles and models, e.g. linking aspects of existing practice with theories, developing teacher’s personal theories of learning, developing competency-based programmes, Individual Learning Plans (ILPS), product- focused learning outcomes, SMART targets, applied use of constructivist approaches, e.g. card sorts, graphic organisers, matching and labelling
Paired discussion of sessions/plans and underpinning theoretical standpoints
Analyse models of learning preferences
□ Models of learning preferences
e.g. Honey and Mumford and Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, Coffield et al critique of learning styles, learning preferences dependent on context
(Entwistle), Metacognition ability to set explicit, challenging goals, to identify strategies to reach these goals and to monitor progress
Tutor presentation Individual activity Tutor-led discussion
Explain how identifying and taking account of learners’ individual learning preferences enables inclusive teaching, learning and assessment
□ Response to learning preferences,
e.g. importance of multisensory approach to engage all learners, to challenge their dominant preference to maximise learning, to introduce alternative learning approaches, enabling individuals to see and to question their longheld habitual behaviours (Sadler Smith) and to understand strengths and weaknesses, to develop a range of learning strategies.
Session plan discussion
‘Jigsaw’ reading activity and group discussion
Understand the application of theories, principles and models of communication in education and training
Analyse theories, principles and models of communication
□ Communication theories
, e.g. language linked to stages of development (Piaget), role of language on cognitive development (Vygotsky), transactional analysis (Berne) – ego states, crossed transactions, interactionist approaches (Bruner), impact of non-verbal or body language, elaborate or restricted language code (Bernstein).
□ Other forms of communication,
e.g. accessibility (paper based and online), SMOG measure of readability, use of chatrooms (synchronous and asynchronous), distance learning communication,
Collaborative activity Tutor-led discussion
Case studies of learner experience
Discussion of examples of digital and printed material for accessibility discussion
Explain ways in which theories, principles and models of communication can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment
, e.g. use of video to review sessions, use of voice, physical space, crossed transactions impact on behaviour, group v 1x1 interaction, motivational language, feedback on process and product, empowering learners, developing learner communication skills and expression, empathic, responsive.
, e.g. awareness of
□ body language, impact of emotion or ego states, script questions to assess accessibility for those with dyslexia or with English as an
additional language, accessibility of handouts and digital materials, clear rubric in assessment material for validity of assessment, positive written feedback.
Group discussion of learners’ own critical incidents or case studies
Exemplars of feedback on learner work
Understand the application of theories, principles and models of assessment in education and training
Analyse theories, principles and models of assessment
□ Assessment theories, e.g. initial or diagnostic, raining or learning needs analysis, standardised national assessment, QCA, QCF; measure of skills, aptitude or knowledge; credible and compatible with learning programme, promoting learning, assessment OF learning and FOR learning, part of training cycle, Medal-and-Mission (Petty), checkand-correct, embedded opportunities, integrated or holistic approaches, centrality of formative assessment in teaching, 2-way feedback (Hattie), including questioning approaches (Wiliam),
Tutor presentation Group discussion
Sample assessment models and standards
Explain ways in which theories, principles and models of assessment can be applied in assessing learning
□ Application to assessing learning
e.g. link between initial and diagnostic assessment and retention and achievement rates, impact on planning and planning assessment schedules, writing of assignment briefs and activities.
individual mini-presentations or
□ Formative assessment, e.g. exit cards, traffic light cards, questioning to cause thinking and to maximise learner engagement with questions, diagnostic (hinge) questioning, inclusive questioning, no opt out, cold calling, right is right, reliability, practicality, validity, sufficiency, developing strategies for positive, constructive feedback.
individual presentations on assessment strategies in own context
Class discussion of examples of assignment schedules and tracking
Pair discussion /analysis of test questions for validity and reliability etc
Understand the application of theories and models of curriculum development within own area of specialism
Analyse theories and models of curriculum and development
Theories and principles,
e.g. broad – all teaching and learning related (Kelly), Humanist (Rogers, Maslow), Behaviourist (Skinner, Watson), Cognitive (Piaget, Gardner), learner-centred, developmental or progressive (Spiral), creative (Steiner/Waldorf), academic or product based (Stenhouse, Tyler), situational model (Skilbeck), curriculum as process, pyramid or spiral mastery learning (Bloom).
Tutor presentation –introduction to topic
Examples of schemes of work
Class discussion of influences on curriculum
Models, e.g. national policy, economic, ideological (purpose of education), National Curriculum, Curriculum 2000,
14-16/19 curriculum, Diplomas, Apprenticeships, Sector Skills Councils, professional or vocational standards, intellectual process, inclusive curriculum, flexible, integrated, modular or unit-based, holistic, distance learning, blended learning.
Case studies on learner experience
Explain ways in which theories and models of curriculum development can be applied in developing curricula in own area of specialism
Specialist curricula, e.g. applying curriculum theories to programme design, meeting requirements of awarding organisation, reflecting appropriate standards, embedded functional skills, study skills, opportunities for vocational and employer experience, variety of approaches, suited to context, building knowledge content, opportunities for development of skills, applied learning, flexible
to encourage learner achievement, linking to achievement, offering learner choice, reflecting timescales and resources, promoting equality and diversity.
Individual research into own curriculum area
Produce a written report Individual presentation to peers Whole-group discussion
Developing curricula, e.g. use of technology to increase range of approaches to learning and teaching, integration of computers and internet working, interactive learning, making information more accessible, broadening horizons, opportunities for blended learning, supporting learner study, paperless portfolio, online subject forum
Understand the application of theories and models of reflection and evaluation to reviewing own practice
Analyse theories and models of reflection and evaluation
Theories, principles and models,
e.g. as part of Kolb’s Learning Cycle, Honey &
Mumford (learning styles), Schon (reflection-inaction/reflection- onaction), Greenaway (plan- doreview),
Gibbs (reflective cycle), Johns (description, reflection, influencing factors, alternative strategies, learning), Murphy (new situation, awareness of thoughts, describing situation, analysing knowledge, evaluating relevance and use of knowledge, identifying learning to apply to new experience), Moon, Dewey, Schon, Tripp: critical incident approach,
Brookfield — critical lenses.
Individual presentations on different models of reflection
Explain ways in which theories and models of reflection and evaluation can be applied to reviewing own practice
Reflecting on own practice, e.g. Scaffolded questioning, analysing personal experiences, SWOT analysis, session evaluation, formal course evaluation, action research, use of critical thinking, questioning choices, problem solving, identifying coping strategies, identifying ways to adapt and improve current practice, identifying sources of best practice, identifying development opportunities, action planning, □ networking.
Alternatives approaches to reflection, e.g. recording through audio or video, professional discussion, group reflection using video and web2 technologies, blogs, wikis, professional learning networks, action learning sets approach or
‘video clubs’ approach, collaborative approaches, using self-video in own teaching.
Individual reflective activities Action planning
Unit 3: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training