Recent Papers 03-04-2022

Critically analyse TG’s current organisational structure Evaluate its appropriateness for the future.

Unit Assessment Criteria – Note

Learning Outcomes:

On completion of this module, learners will be able to understand, analyse and critically evaluate:

1. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the historical and theoretical basis of organisation design and development and their context in terms of value and contribution to organisational life.

The development of organisation theory; different schools of management thinking (with specific reference to scientific management and early attempts at organisational design); different schools of thought and practice surrounding organisation development; behavioural science, social psychology, motivation theory, systems theory, learning theory, psychotherapy, etc. organisational culture and values and how these are determined; the definitional debate; the use of metaphors; new organisational paradigms; systems theory and applications; motivation theory and job redesign; the relationship of organisation design and development with performance management activities.

2. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the available design options regarding structures and relationships.

Organisation structures; formal and informal organisations; types of organisation structure, for example bureaucratic, entrepreneurial, matrix, differentiated; flexible working patterns; core and peripheral models; the nature of the employment contract; the economic and environmental context of organisation design and development; internationalisation, globalisation and transnational structures; legislative, socio-political influences; external and internal factors impacting on choices and decision-making around structures and delivery of services; government initiatives and programmes impacting on organisation design.

3. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the processes and systems that need to be in place to maintain such structures and relationships and evaluation of same.

In this section, we are going to return to the role of HR again, but this time challenging whether there is a need to rethink the HR role more significantly than we have already done and look at Strategic Workforce Capability. The application of job descriptions and role profiles; the formal and informal structure of working relationships, for example consultative machinery, networks etc.; decision making complexes and operating procedures; communication systems; methods of evaluating effectiveness, for example feedback, surveys, focus groups etc.

4. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the methods and procedures of organisation development and review their strategic impact.

In this section, we are going to look at the role of line managers in various aspects of people management and organisational development. Measuring and managing performance outcomes; setting and managing key performance indicators; data collection through employee surveys and consultation procedures; using outcomes from performance reviews; applications of the balanced scorecard; the links to continuous improvement strategies; the links to learning and development; towards a learning organisation.

5. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate possible change management strategies and activities, through the application of organisation development strategies, which might support organisation design and realignment outcomes.

Change is part of life, as in HR. Working with organisation development as a change methodology; origins and applications of change management; concepts and models of change; the process of change; analysis of the organisation as a precursor to change; environmental scanning; the concept of stakeholder analysis; the role of the change agent; the role of the HR specialist in supporting the introduction of strategic change, for example downsizing, redundancy, talent management and diversity, new employment relationships; external and internal change strategies through the application of government initiatives, for example Investors in People, Train to Gain; applying quality standards, for example ISO, EFQM; becoming a learning organisation; resourcing and management of programmes. Critically analyse TG’s current organisational structure Evaluate its appropriateness for the future.

6. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate organisation culture, norms and behaviours.

In this section, we are going to spend time looking at the nature of organisational culture and how that affects the development of an organisation. Measuring and analysing organisational culture; the application of the cultural web; identifying and managing resistance to change; determining organisational values and ethics; translating these into strategy; identifying required behaviours; the identification of competencies; The OD Role of HRM in Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability; emotion at work Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the historical and theoretical basis of organisation design and development and their context in terms of value and contribution to organisational life.

7. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the importance of the HR role in advising on these design and development choices and supporting their implementation.

In the section, we looked at the role of HR in organisation development. We are going to return to that theme, as we look at how we should develop an organisational development strategy. The HR role in supporting the design and implementation of new ways of working; improving organisational and individual performance through job design, job enlargement and job enrichment; the HR role in organisation development; the use of internal and external consultants; facilitation styles; the concept of business partnering; managing cultural change programmes.

Organisation Design & Organisational Development - Assignment

Learning Outcomes:

On completion of this module, learners will be able to understand, analyse and critically evaluate:

  • Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the available design options regarding structures and relationships.
  • Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the processes and systems that need to be in place to maintain such structures and relationships and evaluation of same.
  • Understand, analyse and critically evaluate possible change management strategies and activities through the application of organisation development strategies, which might support organisation design and realignment outcomes.
  • Understand, analyse and critically evaluate organisation culture, norms and behaviours.

Assessment brief/activity

Formed in October 2013 as a result of a number of mergers, Travel Group (TG) is a public limited company.  TG’s head office is in Germany and The Group employs 56,000 people worldwide. Providing services to more than 40 million customers from around the world, TG’s key operational areas are 1600 travel agencies, 7 airlines, 350 hotels and 14 cruise liners. Travel UK is the UK tour operator subsidiary and airline. Travel UK has the following operational divisions: Airline, Commercial, Customer Operations and the following business support departments: Finance, IT, Marketing, Public Relations/Business Change and Human Resources.  Each operational division is clearly defined and has its own sphere of competence.  Each division has a hierarchy that is clearly defined with operational rules and processes that guide managers in making objective decisions.  Each operational division has its own business support departments.  Following the most recent merger a decision was made to put in place new organisational structures in recognition of the duplication that existed in some functions, and where different brands were in place for travel agencies these have now been rebranded Travel UK.  Differences also exist in terms and conditions of employment and working practices of TG’s employees depending on which pre-merger company the employees worked for.  Some of these differences can clearly be identified in job descriptions whereas others exist in agreements that were the result of consultation and negotiation with trade unions. The trade unions are strong and have high levels of membership.  For example, in the UK department heads have been reluctant to make changes to cabin crew hours and working practices because of the underlying threat of strike action. Joint Consultative Committees meet on a monthly basis and the scope of issues can include almost anything from terms and conditions of employment to costs and allocation of employees to flying schedules.  This consultative machinery has a significant impact on decision making. Critically analyse TG’s current organisational structure Evaluate its appropriateness for the future.

Organisational performance is measured in a number of ways.  In addition to the standard financial measures (such as turnover and profits that are important to all public limited companies) TG as the parent company has three key non-financial measures.  These are customer satisfaction, employee engagement and sustainability.  In this highly competitive market, customer satisfaction is crucial in ensuring that customers book future holidays with TG and recommend TG to friends and family.  The second key non-financial measure is engagement. TG believes that happy and engaged employees will help to achieve sustained competitive advantage in a fairly turbulent market. The third measure, sustainability within the travel industry, is seen as crucial. The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (which establishes and manages global sustainable standards with the aim of increasing sustainable tourism knowledge and practices among public and private stakeholders) sets two criteria. Understand, analyse and critically evaluate the historical and theoretical basis of organisation design and development and their context in terms of value and contribution to organisational life. Their website states these two criteria are, ‘…those that relate to destinations and those that relate to tour operators that provide the guiding principles and minimum requirements that any tourism business or destination should aspire to reach in order to protect and sustain the world’s natural and cultural resources, while ensuring tourism meets its potential as a tool for conservation and poverty alleviation’.  Practical examples of how TG meets these criteria include using e-ticketing, reducing waste, saving water and reducing carbon emissions.  Sustainability is a key organisational goal and TG aspires to be included on the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) and the FTSE4 Good Sustainability Index.  Having the right organisational culture is viewed as being central to achieving this goal.  

The travel industry has been affected by a number of different external factors in recent years including: terrorism affecting flights, airports and resorts; industrial action taken by baggage handlers and air traffic controllers at various airports in Europe; volcano ash and extreme weather grounding or rerouting flights; Norovirus on cruise ships, etc.

Write a 3000 word report in which you:

  1. Critically analyse TG’s current organisational structure Evaluate its appropriateness for the future.
  2. Provide a detailed analysis of external factors currently affecting TG and the impact that these may have on change and organisational development at TG.
  3. Produce organisational development and design recommendations of how TG can achieve its sustainability goal. In doing so you should consider the extent to which organisational culture can be changed and whether a culture change is important in achieving the sustainability goal. You should use research evidence and your knowledge of organisational practice to support your recommendations. Consideration should also be given to possible implementation issues and/or tensions.

All submissions should be in the region of 3,000 words and references should be added in the Harvard Referencing Format.

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