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Assignment Briefs 09-10-2022

First part of the handbook covers the fundamentals of the computer. In the introduction, provide a summary of the historical development of computer systems since 1980s

Task 1

A. First part of the handbook covers the fundamentals of the computer.  In the introduction, provide  a summary  of the historical  development  of computer systems since 1980s.


An amazing machine! We are living in the computer age today and most of our day to day activities cannot be accomplished without using computers. Sometimes knowingly and sometimes unknowingly we use computers. Computer has become an indispensable and multipurpose tool. We are breathing in the computer age and gradually computer has become such a desire necessity of life that it is difficult to imagine life without it.


For most of the people, computer is a machine used for a calculation or a computation, but actually it is much more than that. Precisely Computer is an electronic device for performing arithmetic and logical operation. Or “Computer is a device or a flexible machine to process data and converts it into information.”


Actually speaking electronic data processing does not go back more than just half a centaury i.e. they are in existence merely from early 1940’s. In early days when our ancestor used to reside in cave the counting was a problem. Still it is stated becoming difficult. When they started using stone to count their animals or the possession they never knew that this day will lead to a computer of today. People today started following a set of procedure to perform calculation with these stones, which later led to creation of a digital counting device, which was the predecessor the first calculating device invented, was know as ABACUS.

Computers from the 1980-1990s

1981: Not to be outdone by Apple, IBM releases their first personal computer, the Acorn, with an Intel chip, two floppy disks, and an available color monitor.

1982: Instead of going with its annual tradition of naming a “Man of the Year”, Time Magazine does something a little different and names the computer its “Machine of the Year”. A senior writer noted in the article, “Computers were once regarded as distant, ominous abstractions, like Big Brother. In 1982, they truly became personalized, brought down to scale, so that people could hold, prod and play with them."

1983: The CD-ROM hit the market, able to hold 550 megabytes of pre-recorded data. That same year, many computer companies worked to set a standard for these disks, making them able to be used freely to access a wide variety of information.

Later that year, Microsoft introduced Word, which was originally called Multi-Tool Word.

1984: Apple launches Macintosh, which was introduced during a Super Bowl XVIII commercial. The Macintosh was the first successful mouse-driven computer with a graphical user interface. It sold for $2,500.

1985: Microsoft announces Windows, which allowed for multi-tasking with a graphical user interface.

That same year, a small Massachusetts computer manufacturer registered the first dot com domain name, Symbolics.com.

Also, the programming language C++ is published and is said to make programming “more enjoyable” for the serious programmer.

1986: Originally called the Special Effects Computer Group, Pixar is created at Lucasfilm. It worked to create computer-animated portions of popular films, like Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. Steve Jobs purchased Pixar in 1986 for $10 million, renaming it Pixar. It was bought by Disney in 2006.

1990: English programmer and physicist Tim Berners-Lee develops HyperText Markup Language, also known as HTML. He also prototyped the term WorldWideWeb. It features a server, HTML, URLs, and the first browser.

1991: Apple releases the Powerbook series of laptops, which included a built-in trackball, internal floppy disk, and palm rests. The line was discontinued in 2006.

1993: With an attempt to enter the handheld computer market, Apple releases Newton. Called the “Personal Data Assistant”, it never performed the way Apple President John Scully had hoped, and it was discontinued in 1998.

1995: IBM released the ThinkPad 701C, which was officially known as the Track Write, with an expanding full-sized keyboard that was comprised of three interlocking pieces.

Additionally, the format for a Digital Video Disc (DVD) is introduced, featuring a huge increase in storage space that the compact disc (CD).

Also that year, Microsoft’s Windows 95 operating system was launched. To spread the word, a $300 million promotional campaign was rolled out, featuring TV commercials that used “Start Me Up” by the Rolling Stones and a 30-minute video starring Matthew Perry and Jennifer Aniston. It was installed on more computers than any other operating system.