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Ends–means is one type of decision. The others are: Programmable–nonprogrammable and administrative–operational.
Exam Two Study Guide
Chapters 6, 10, 11, 12
Answer the following questions below for each chapter using your textbook.
There are a total of 52 questions. 85% of the questions must be answered to receive 10 points towards your exam one. If 90% or all the questions are answered, you will receive 15 points towards exam two. Highlight your answer for each question and provide the page number to indicate where you found the answer in parenthesis next to the answer.
Multiple Choice. Choose the best correct answer, with the page number.
Ends–means is one type of decision. The others are:
Programmable–nonprogrammable and administrative–operational.
Administrative–operational and policy–procedural.
Programmable–nonprogrammable and recurring–nonrecurring.
Policy–procedural and recurring–nonrecurring.
Problem analysis and alternative choice.
Problem analysis and decision making.
Problem analysis and alternative selection.
Predecision analysis and postdecision implementation.
Conditions that initiate problem solving include:
Prospective; opportunity/threat; might.
Concurrent; improvement; seek.
Retrospective; deviation; has/is.
All of the above.
The problem statement is important because it:
Gets everybody thinking alike.
Is an iterative process for all involved.
Requires everyone to be involved.
Focuses direction and action.
Depend on an operational definition.
Vary depending on who sees them.
Are always few and far between.
Are hard to find and delay the process.
The tentative alternative solution loop in the problem-solving model:
Requires application of specific criteria to each solution.
May give decision makers a false sense of certainty.
Uses general criteria to allow further review of solutions.
Suggests a better direction for decision makers.
Assumptions are based on facts using:
Quantitative analysis including least squares.
Nonquantitative analysis using multi-voting.
Inductive and deductive reasoning.
Tiered voting by members of the “C” suite.
The three types of assumptions are:
Structural, facilitative, ascertainable.
Personal, structural, problem centered.
Problem centered, justifiable, facilitative.
Facilitative, ascertainable, justifiable.
Decision criteria are used to select the best solution. Decision criteria include:
Feasibility of implementation.
All of the above.
Group decision making is:
Almost always better than unilateral decision making.
Almost never better than unilateral decision making.
Available at the discretion of the decision maker.
Most common in HMOs and group practice plans.
Strategizing is achieving equilibrium between the organization and its external environment.
b. False System theory is based on all of the following core concepts
b. Feedback loop.
d. Entropy. The most obvious adaptations of HSOs/HSs to environmental change is the impact of:
c. Patient migration patterns.
d. Physician autonomy. Environmental forces for HSOs/HSs include all of the following
a. Demographic patterns.
b. Technological developments.
c. Executive succession. d. State and federal regulation.
Which of the following statements regarding the post–World War II environment is true?
a. Provider roles were unclear.
b. Risk was high.
c. Environment was less predictable.
d. Inefficient providers survived. The vision statement differs from the mission statement in that the vision statement is:
a. A statement of what the organization wants to become.
c. More specific.
d. A statement that contains dense information Planning in HSOs/HSs begins with the:
a. Vision statements. Goals.
c. Core objectives.
d. Mission statement.
a. Inconsistent with the mission statement.
b. Unofficial expressions of the organization.
d. Guides to thinking.
a. Voluntary exchange of things of value.
Effective strategic control can accomplish the following:
a. Identify only desired performance.
b. Undermine corrective action.
c. Facilitate coordination.
d. Provide a way for employees to identify corrective action. Organizing the organization occurs after:
Quality of work life (QWL) programs include:
More paid time off and bonuses for staff.
Less supervision and more empowerment.
Job enlargement and job enrichment.
Childcare and a cafeteria benefits program.
The cause of most problems in HSOs and HSs.
Problematic since it is misused by managers.
Likely to give managers a Napoleon complex.
The power to cause something to happen.
The CFO monitors financial results.
Someone is answerable for results.
The CEO uses fiat power, as needed.
Healthcare teams report to one another.
Span of control:
Became an outdated concept in the electronic age.
Was used by the classicists in order to monitor output.
Means there are limits to the number of people managed.
Means the number of departments must be limited.
The matrix organization:
Has more negative than positive aspects and may be destructive.
Facilitates coordination and communication in patient care.
Is only appropriate for large, complex HSOs or hospitals.
Is mandated by various accreditation and certification groups.
Centralization of authority means:
There is little delegation of authority.
Managers of line departments dictate work.
Task teams can only work in a limited range.
The GB is distrustful of its senior executives.
The informal organization is:
Of little or no importance.
Of great or greater importance.
Concurrent to the formal organization.
Carries high risk for managers.
Interorganizational relationships (IORs):
Have become less and less important in healthcare.
Are limited to large HSs as they aggregate services.
Allow HSOs to enhance their activities and services.
Have deleterious effects on small- to medium-size HSOs.
The triad comprises:
GB, CEO, PSO. CEO, CFO, CIO.
CNO, PSO, CTO.
GB, CNO, CEO
The staffing function follows:
The values, mission, and vision of HSOs/HSs:
Are best provided in orientation and other onboarding.
Should be integral to recruiting and selection.
Will be learned during on-the-job training and skills building.
Are known by new staff members because of social media.
The manager to whom a new staff member will report:
Can rely on HR to select someone best for the job.
Has time during the probationary period for a final decision.
Must be part of selecting and hiring new staff.
Is pleased to have HR’s help in getting a new employee.
Managers can best help staff members improve their performance by:
Judging and disciplining them.
Moving them to a more suitable job.
Being friendly and consoling as needed.
Being a coach and teacher.
Electronic education and training are:
Best suited to conveying facts and specific information.
Preferred by HR and should be used extensively.
Best to convey the human dynamic of encounters in HSOs.
Most efficient at capturing the richness of HSO interactions.
HSO compensation programs:
Are a function of managers’ evaluation of staff members.
Consider internal and external equity and HSO philosophy.
Consider state and federal government guidelines.
Are driven primarily by the external environment.
37. HSO staff members who have come from outside the United States:
Are employed using special permits issued by HSOs.
Must have language skills equal to or better than those of Americans.
Must meet the same levels of review as Americans.
Are a recent development both in the United States and internationally.
38. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) in HSOs:
Help staff members who need specialized training.
Must be communitywide because of federal regulations.
Are limited to addiction, abuse, and family problems.
Provide a wide range of support and services to staff.
39. Separation from employment, except when voluntary, should be:
A last resort.
A first resort.
Is generally seen as undesirable by HSOs and HSs.
Interferes with the organization–employee relationship.
Occurs in organizations who have inadequate HR activities.
d. All of the above.
You may use your textbook to answer the following short essay answer questions. As you answer the questions, cite the page number where you found your response from in the textbook.
Critique the following statement:
“Most managers are intuitive problem solvers; they use intuition, hunch, and ‘gut’ instinct to come to the right answer for almost all problems.”
B. Write a statement of about 15 words that includes a fact. Underline the fact.
Describe the value of facts in problem solving.
Read and analyze the following vignette:
Henry’s work in your department for the past 10 years has been exemplary. Henry reports to you. Two months ago, Henry became dysfunctional on the job. He came in late, was noticeably less productive, and often seemed distracted during the workday. As Henry’s work declined in both quality and quantity, his peers complained to you. You have spoken to Henry about the situation several times. His explanation is that he is going through a phase and will be “okay” soon. Despite Henry’s reassurances, his work continues to be unacceptable. You do not want to lose someone who was once a good employee, but the situation seems chronic and is affecting the department negatively.
Do the following :
Write a problem statement using the format in the chapter.
Identify five facts in the vignette that are relevant to your problem statement. (Seven are listed below.)
Develop three alternative solutions that solve the problem you stated.
D. State the decision criteria you would use to select a solution.
4. Miles and Snow developed a typology of marketing strategies that is still useful in HSOs/HSs today. Research indicates that placement in the typology may be dependent on the HSO’s/HS’s external environment. Using the typology, indicate external forces that might affect each of the four patterns.
5. Porter’s competitive strategy identifies low-cost leadership strategies. Explain the disadvantages of entering the market as the low-cost provider.
6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of entering a focused “niche” market?
7. A. Define the formal structure and the informal structure of an HSO. B. Discuss how each contributes to achieving the goals of the organization.
8. In addition to the five functions of management, Henri Fayol identified 14 principles of management. Several are discussed in Chapter 11. Identify and discuss three of them.
9. Draw organization charts for a typical A) acute care hospital, B) nursing facility (NF), and C) highlight the differences.
10. Outline the role of HR in an HSO’s staffing function. Discuss briefly:
a. Basic HR department activities:
b. Special areas of support for HSO staff members
c. Interactions with first- and second-level managers
11. Outline the role of social media in HSOs, both by the organisation and by staff members. Highlight the positive and negative aspects.
12. The COVID-19 (now SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in 2020 caused a major reconsideration of working remotely, rather than onsite in the HSO .
A. Identify four HSO activities that can be performed remotely without diminishing the quality of patient care. For each, state why no diminution in quality will occur.
B. What effect will some staff members working remotely have on other staff members? How can management mitigate negative aspects of the site where work is performed?