Assignment Briefs 09-10-2022

Explain various components of systems analysis and further explain how systems analysis and design fits into the software development life-cycle

Task 1

A. Explain various components of systems analysis and further explain how systems analysis and design fits into the software development life-cycle.

Systems Analysis

It is a process of collecting and interpreting facts, identifying the problems, and decomposition of a system into its components.

System analysis is conducted for the purpose of studying a system or its parts in order to identify its objectives. It is a problem-solving technique that improves the system and ensures that all the components of the system work efficiently to accomplish their purpose.

Systems Design

It is a process of planning a new business system or replacing an existing system by defining its components or modules to satisfy the specific requirements. Before planning, you need to understand the old system thoroughly and determine how computers can best be used in order to operate efficiently.

System Design focuses on how to accomplish the objective of the system.

System Analysis and Design (SAD) mainly focuses on −

  • Systems
  • Processes
  • Technology

B. Evaluate different approaches to system analysis and design. You will also require to evaluate system design requirements of Natixis.

There are 5 different approaches to system and analysis design, these are:

Scope definition,

  • Problem Analysis,
  • Requirements Analysis,
  • Logical Design,
  • and Decision Analysis.

Scope Definition

This is called a task diagram for a phase. This is a look “inside” a phase. It decomposes the phase into its component tasks. It is only a guideline. Each project will adapt these tasks to the project at hand. Tasks may be added, split, or deleted according to the methodology and route used.

Problem Analysis

Cause-and-effect analysis – a technique in which problems are studied to determine their causes and effects.

In practice, effects can be symptomatic of more deeply rooted problems which, in turn, must be analyzed for causes and effects until the causes and effects do not yield symptoms of other problems.

Context Diagram – a pictorial model that shows how the system interacts with the world around it and specifies in general terms the system inputs and outputs.

Requirements Analysis

Functional requirement – a description of activities and services a system must provide.

Inputs, outputs, processes, stored data Nonfunctional requirement – a description of other features, characteristics, and constraints that define a satisfactory system.

Performance, ease of learning and use, budgets, deadlines, documentation, security, internal auditing controls

Decision Analysis

Technical feasibility – Is the solution technically practical? Does our staff have the technical expertise to design and build this solution?

  • Operational feasibility – Will the solution fulfill the users’ requirements? To what degree? How will the solution change the users’ work environment? How do users feel about such a solution?
  • Economic feasibility – Is the solution cost-effective?
  • Schedule feasibility – Can the solution be designed and implemented within an acceptable time period?

Task 2

A. Provide a concise guidance on system design methodologies and modelling through an explanation of the system design concepts and an evaluation of the different system design methodologies including object oriented.

System design is the phase that bridges the gap between problem domain and the existing system in a manageable way. This phase focuses on the solution domain, i.e. “how to implement?”

It is the phase where the SRS document is converted into a format that can be implemented and decides how the system will operate.

In this phase, the complex activity of system development is divided into several smaller sub-activities, which coordinate with each other to achieve the main objective of system development.

Inputs to System Design

System design takes the following inputs −

  • Statement of work
  • Requirement determination plan
  • Current situation analysis

Proposed system requirements including a conceptual data model, modified DFDs, and Metadata (data about data).

Outputs for System Design

System design gives the following outputs −

    Infrastructure and organizational changes for the proposed system.

  • A data schema, often a relational schema.
  • Metadata to define the tables/files and columns/data-items.
  • A function hierarchy diagram or web page map that graphically describes the program structure.
  • Actual or pseudocode for each module in the program.
  • A prototype for the proposed system.

B. Provide an explanation of the human computer interface (HCI) as a concept and also evaluate various methodologies that are found within human computer interface (HCI) discipline.

What is Human-Computer interface (HCI)?

Human-computer interaction (HCI) is a multidisciplinary field of study focusing on the design of computer technology and the interaction between humans (the users) and computers. While initially concerned with computers, HCI has since expanded to cover almost all forms of information technology design.

The Meteoric Rise of HCI

HCI surfaced in the 1980s with the advent of personal computing, just as machines such as the Apple Macintosh, IBM PC 5150 and Commodore 64 started turning up in homes and offices in society-changing numbers. For the first time, sophisticated electronic systems were available to general consumers for uses such as word processors, games units and accounting aids. Consequently, as computers were no longer room-sized, expensive tools exclusively built for experts in specialized environments, the need to create human-computer interaction that was also easy and efficient for less experienced users became increasingly vital. From its origins, HCI would expand to incorporate multiple disciplines, such as computer science, cognitive science and human-factors engineering.

Task3

A. Create a system design document for their retail bank, `SMC Bank` and also produce a model of a software system for the bank.

Table of Contents

1.         Introduction      1

1.1       Purpose of the SDD      1

2.         General Overview and Design Guidelines/Approach            2

2.1       General Overview        2

2.2       Assumptions/Constraints/Risks  2

2.2.1    Assumptions     2

2.2.2    Constraints       2

2.2.3    Risks    3

2.3       Alignment with Federal Enterprise Architecture            3

3.         Design Considerations  4

3.1       Goals and Guidelines    4

3.2       Development Methods & Contingencies            4

3.3       Architectural Strategies 4

3.4       Performance Engineering         5

4.         System Architecture and Architecture Design    6

4.1       Logical View   6

4.2       Hardware Architecture 6

4.2.1    Security Hardware Architecture            6

4.2.2    Performance Hardware Architecture     7

4.3       Software Architecture   7

4.3.1    Security Software Architecture 8

4.3.2    Performance Software Architecture      8

4.4       Information Architecture          8

4.4.1    Records Management   8

4.5       Internal Communications Architecture  8

4.6       Security Architecture    9

4.7       Performance     9

4.8       System Architecture Diagram   9

5.         System Design  10

5.1       Business Requirements 10

5.2       Database Design           10

5.2.1    Data Objects and Resultant Data Structures       10

5.2.2    File and Database Structures     10

5.3       Data Conversion           11

5.4       User Machine-Readable Interface         11

5.4.1    Inputs   11

5.4.2    Outputs 12

5.5       User Interface Design   12

5.5.1    Section 508 Compliance           12

6.         Operational Scenarios   13

7.         Detailed Design            14

7.1       Hardware Detailed Design        14

7.2       Software Detailed Design         14

7.3       Security Detailed Design          15

7.4       Performance Detailed Design   16

7.5       Internal Communications Detailed Design         16

8.         System Integrity Controls          17

9.         External Interfaces       18

9.1       Interface Architecture   18

9.2       Interface Detailed Design         18

Appendix A: Record of Changes           19

Appendix B: Acronyms 20

Appendix C: Glossary   21

Appendix D: Referenced Documents    22

Appendix E: Approvals 23

Appendix F: Additional Appendices      24

Appendix G: Notes to the Author/Template Instructions 25

  1. Produce a security and control design for the bank to get it approved from the instructor

References:

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/system_analysis_and_design/system_analysis_and_design_overview.htm

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/system_analysis_and_design/system_design.htm

https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/topics/human-computer-interaction

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