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01-17-2023 Making links to relevant theories, critically analyse why crimes of genocide occur.
Making links to relevant theories, critically analyse why crimes of genocide occur.
Introduction (+/- 300 words)
What is genocide?
Who coined this term?
What crimes are committed during genocide? (in brief as this could be expanded in the body)
Briefly expose some known cases: Holocaust, Bosnia, Darfur, Rwanda genocides.
The role of criminology and criminologists (in brief) – “
There are few criminological approaches to genocide. This lack of engagement persists even though the field of criminology has many relevant insights to the study of genocide. However, the discipline has failed to engage in these insights in the study of the ‘crimes of crimes’’ (Pruitt, 2014:1). Mention few theories that may explain genocides.
The aim of this essay is to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the theories that have helped to explain the occurrence of genocide’s crime and how these could be applied to the above cases.
Body (+/- 2400 words)
Predisposing factor that may lead to genocide and types of crimes.
Expand why Criminology have lacked in the study of Genocide.
What happen to scholars and genocide studies after the Holocaust?
What theories have been linked to the crime of genocide?
This paper is very useful. It includes many useful references -
https://repository.library.northeastern.edu/files/neu:1020/fulltext.pdf Can you link these theories to the genocides mentioned in the introduction?
Another useful paper. It includes many useful references -
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/epdf/10.1177/000312240807300601 Another useful paper. It includes many useful references -
https://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/islandora/object/fsu:639856/datastream/PDF/view Scott Straus (2012) “Destroy Them to Save Us”: Theories of Genocide and the Logics of Political Violence, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24:4, 544-560, DOI: 10.1080/09546553.2012.700611 (PDF available on email chat)
Violentization Theory and Genocide - Another useful paper. It includes many useful references –
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark-Winton-2/publication/254097367_Violentization_Theory_and_Genocide/links/5436c4640cf2643ab9888901/Violentization-Theory-and-Genocide.pdf Xenophobia -
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249718642_Criminology_and_the_Holocaust_Xenophobia_Evolution_and_Genocide Another useful paper. It includes many useful references -
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226943957_Criminology_and_genocide_studies_Notes_on_what_might_have_been_and_what_still_could_be Theory of Social Control – ‘’
Genocide is defined here as organized and unilateral mass killing on the basis of ethnicity. While some have focused on genocide as a type of deviance, most genocide is also social control—a response to behaviour itself defined as deviant. As such, it can be explained as a part of a general theory of social control. Black’s (1998) theories of social control explain the handling of conflicts with their social geometry—that is, with the social characteristics of those involved in the conflict. Here, Blackian theories of social control are extended to specify the social geometry of genocide as follows: genocide varies directly with immobility, cultural distance, relational distance, functional independence, and inequality; and it is greater in a downward direction than in an upward or lateral direction. This theory of genocide can be applied to numerous genocides throughout history, and it is capable of ordering much of the known variation in genocide—such as when and where it occurs, how severe it is, and who participates’’. Making links to relevant theories, critically analyse why crimes of genocide occur. See the full paper of Campbell, B., 2009. Genocide as social control. Sociological Theory, 27(2), pp.150-172. R2P (Responsibility to Protect) ?? Not sure if this can be relevant. Perhaps in the reason of the reoccurrence of this type of crime as this strategy is not enough to prevent genocide.
Are these theories satisfactory in the explanation of these types of crimes?
What are their weaknesses? Perhaps in here be critical as these crimes still occur today… what has been done to prevent genocide? What can be done more in order to prevent genocide crimes?
Conclusion (+/- 300 words)
Summarise the key points of the body highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these relevant theories.
Campbell, B., 2009. Genocide as social control.
Sociological Theory, 27(2), pp.150-172.
Hagan, John & Rymond-Richmond, Wenona (2008). The collective dynamics of racial dehumanization and genocidal victimization in Darfur. American Sociological Review, 73, 875-902.
Pruitt, W., 2014. How Criminology can engage in the Theorizing on Genocide.
International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 9(1), pp.1-15. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?repid=rep1&type=pdf&doi=1fe89114e7b14cd09a60e4f6548b1210b77d504d
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