Nike ‘Pro Hijab’: Targeting Muslim Women Athletes
This case study includes material from the following sources: BBC Trending (2017); Ferguson, Edward (2017); Sadia and Perepu (2017).
“Sports is one of the few platforms that brings people together, and the bigger brands are noticing the impact of Arab Muslim female athletes, the more the inclusion there is - with everyone having an equal chance at sports.”1 – Amna Al Haddad, Emirati Weightlifter
US-based Nike Inc. (Nike), the world’s leading sportswear company, officially announced in early March 2017 that it would be launching its competition sportswear called the ‘Pro Hijab2’, a performance headscarf targeted at Muslim3 women athletes (MWAs), who wanted to cover their heads while playing the sport without compromising on their religious beliefs. The product, estimated to cost around $354, was scheduled to be launched in the spring of 2018.
Nike, an American multinational corporation founded in 1964 by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, initially operated as a distributor for Japanese shoemaker Onitsuka Tiger5. Over the years, it developed into one of the world’s largest and leading sportswear manufacturing and supplying companies. Headquartered in Oregon, Nike sponsored several teams and high-profile athletes around the world, with its highly recognized trademarks of ‘Just Do It’ and the ‘Swoosh’ logo. Nike believed in fostering the culture of invention to come up with innovative products that would serve athletes around the world. The Pro Hijab was another such milestone in its mission, ‘To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world’.
The Pro Hijab had been in the making since 2016. Nike said it was first inspired by Saudi Arabian runner Sarah Attar who competed in the 800m race at the London Olympics, 2012, wearing a hijab. It was also inspired by Emirati weightlifter Amna Al Haddad (Haddad). According to Nike, Pro Hijab was the result of ‘an ongoing cultural shift that has seen more women from the Middle East than ever embracing sport.’ The product was designed to target all the MWAs in general with a special focus on Middle-Eastern athletes.
Meetings held at Nike’s headquarters over a few years had revealed the problems faced by MWAs while competing in a hijab. Haddad had reportedly struggled to find a performance-based hijab that didn’t shift while in action. She was not comfortable with the one she had due to its weight, movement, and lack of breathability – all of which made it difficult for her to focus. Other players also pointed out that it was difficult to play a sport with the traditional hijab unless it was pinned properly, which was a challenge during competitions. Using a range of appropriate marketing models and theories, explain how Nike adopts a marketing orientation in developing
This prompted Nike to make a performance hijab similar to its other sportswear – inconspicuous and almost like a second skin. “The Nike Pro Hijab was designed as a direct result of our athletes telling us they needed this product to perform better, and we hope that it will help athletes around the world do just that,”6 said Megan Saalfeld, Nike’s Senior Director of Communications, Central and Eastern Europe.
To design and develop the product, Nike consulted several famous MWAs like Haddad; Zahra Lari, an Emirati figure skater; Egyptian running coach and mountaineer, Manal Rustom (Rustom); and many other MWAs from around the world, including Middle Eastern runners and cyclists. “What we heard was that women were looking for a lightweight and breathable solution that would stay in place without concern of shifting,”7 said a Nike Spokesperson.
Nike was mindful of the heat in the Middle East and hence designed the single-layer, pull-on garment with a ‘mesh’ material made from light-weight polyester with its trademark ‘Swoosh’ above the left ear. The fabric’s tiny holes would make it breathable while it remained opaque, a requirement for hijab-wearing women. The Pro Hijab was to initially be available in black, grey, and obsidian. Additionally, it was designed with a longer back so it wouldn’t come untucked during competitions. Also, fluff threads were used at the neck to avoid rubbing and irritation when the athletes sweated. Nike’s Pro Hijab was tested on a few athletes. They said they felt comfortable and at ease wearing the Pro Hijab while playing the sport.
MN5006 Serving Customers in Global Markets
Nike’s plans to launch of the Pro Hijab attracted a mixed response. Most MWAs were happy and excited to hear about the product as it provided them with a much needed alternative for the uncomfortable traditional cotton hijabs, for competitions. “It is not just about making a product available for Muslim and Arab women, but it is also giving a chance to those women who were putting off the idea of wearing the veil completely in order to compete,”8 said Rustom. Apart from its features, it was lauded for the other sensitive issues it highlighted, like religion and gender inclusivity. “I am very proud that Nike is finally launching the product that will cater to a new segment of rising female athletes around the world and providing them with the right support,”9 Haddad said.
The announcement came only weeks after Nike released a controversial ad featuring five hijab- wearing athletes playing sports in the streets of Dubai. The ad faced flak from women in the Middle-East who said that it projected a false image of what their lives looked like on a day-to-day basis. Several women asserted that the product was not revolutionary, as there were already several companies like Hummel, Oiselle, Resport On, Asiya, Capsters, Friniggi, and many others which were ahead of Nike in making performance hijabs. Nicole Najmah Abraham, an activist from New York, said, “Although the inclusion and diversity displayed by Nike is appreciated, they are about 13 years late to the Sport Hijab rights. Muslim designers worldwide have already tackled this problem for the hijabi athlete.”10 Several analysts also opined that the entire credit for creating a revolutionary product shouldn’t be given to Nike alone as several companies had been developing modest sportswear even before Nike thought of designing the Pro-Hijab. For example, in 2016, sportswear company ‘Hummel’ introduced a soccer jersey with an attached hijab for the Afghanistan National Women’s Soccer team.
There were several others who criticized Nike for capitalizing on religious sentiments and commercializing them. Observers wondered whether Nike was genuinely concerned about the needs of MWAs or was just cashing in on a religious practice and culture, to fulfill its own needs. Many also found the price comparatively higher than the ones sold by the local companies. Sherin Sultana, a hijab-wearing Muslim-American woman stated, “It kind of seems like it’s more for the money than the need.”11 But observers felt that though it may be pricy for those Muslim women who spent only one or two hours on their daily workout, a dedicated athlete might not mind going in for such a high-end product. Whatever might be the motive behind the Pro Hijab’s launch, many analysts believed that this step would, what they called, normalize Muslims and Islamic culture. “Such normalization helps weaken the rhetoric of fear and bigotry advanced by the powerful Islamophobia industry,”12 said Hussam Ayloush, an executive director at the Council on American-Islamic Relations.
People who considered the hijab as oppressive criticized Nike for supporting it. Some even threatened to boycott all Nike products as they felt that by designing the Pro Hijab, Nike was normalizing oppression against women. Criticism was swift on social media, especially on Twitter where some claimed that Nike was effectively supporting women being forced to wear the head scarf. One such critic named Sandy expressed her displeasure by posting this on her Twitter page, “#Nike cashing in on the subjugation, domination, and oppression of women. I will never buy another Nike product again.”13 Many even made fun of Nike saying that the company may come out with sports burqas14 in the future.
Contrary to this opinion about oppression, women like Haddad and Zahra who donned the hijab considered wearing it as empowering. They came to Nike’s rescue and stated that a proper hijab with a good fit would actually be the opposite of oppression. Zahra said, “It is freeing and liberating. You can do anything and any sport with hijab without feeling any hindrance to your sport or beliefs.”15 Apart from these famous athletes, several other Muslim women too opposed the criticism, explaining how the hijab was in no way oppressing. One such Hijab supporter posted this on her Twitter page, “Wearing a hijab is a choice not oppression. Taking away our freedom to choose is oppression. My hijab is my identity which I chose”16.
Haddad affirmed that any limits on MWAs rested with society and in people’s minds but not with the hijab. She also emphasized how several MWAs had expressed a need for such a hijab previously and how they had fought for their right to wear a hijab during competitions. One such example was that of Kulsoom Abdullah, an American weight-lifter who had to fight with the International Weightlifting Federation in order to be allowed to compete while covering her head, arms, and legs. She was finally successful in overturning the regulation requiring weightlifters’ knees and elbows to be visible. There were several other such athletes who had to fight for their right to be covered while playing the sport.
This was not the first time that the clothing worn by Muslims had faced criticism. The best of such examples was the “Burkini17 Ban” in France. Designed in Australia, ‘Burkinis’ later spread to the rest of the world and gained popularity in the early 2000s. In August 2016, burkinis were banned by several French beach resorts in the wake of the ‘Nice’ truck attack.18 The reason given by Nice’s Deputy Mayor Christian Estrosi was that the clothing “overtly manifests adherence to a religion at a time when France and places of worship are the target of terrorist attacks.”19
INCREASING INTEREST OF MUSLIM WOMEN IN SPORTS
As Muslim women started breaking through the glass ceilings in several fields to the world stage, the hijab became a much more common sight. In the 2016 Rio Olympics, 45% of the athletes were women. Despite having to face several challenges, at least 14 Muslim women won medals at these Olympics and the number was expected to rise in the coming years. The number of MWAs participating in world competitions had increased dramatically since the advent of the new millennium. There were also 68 MWAs who participated in the 2016 Rio Olympics wearing a hijab.
Of late, several sports organizations had slowly started allowing MWAs to play the sport while wearing a hijab. On May 4, 2017, the International Basketball Federation, FIBA, tweaked its laws, to be effective from October1, 2017, to allow religious headwear – including hijabs for Muslim women, turbans for Sikh men, and yarmulkes (skull cap) for Jews, as long as the headwear remained consistent with the player’s uniform color and did not pose any danger to the person wearing it or to the opponent. Soccer governing body FIFA also lifted its ban on head coverings for male and female players, in 2014. The International Olympic Committee and International Judo Federation allowed a Saudi Arabian judo competitor named Wodjan Shahrkhani to wear a hijab during a competition at the 2016 Olympics. Fencer Ibtihaj Mohammed became the first Muslim American woman to wear a hijab while competing in the Olympics. She also turned out to be the first American MWA to earn a medal at the Olympics, as she won a bronze medal at the Rio Olympics. During the first week of May 2017, the American Boxing Federation also overturned its regulations on headwear. This increased the interest of Muslim women in sports and gave rise to a burgeoning industry for sports/competition-friendly hijabs. Companies like ResportOn, The Hijab Shop, and Capsters began supplying head coverings for a wide range of athletic activities, from swimming and soccer to taekwondo. Unwilling to standback,looking at the changing sports scenario, Nike felt that this was the perfect time to announce the launch of its Pro Hijab.
BOOMING MODEST FASHION INDUSTRY
With the rise in Islamophobia due to the perceived threat of Muslim extremism and sensitivities over immigration, the hijab had been banned in several places, with many other countries also debating a ban. The number of attacks against Muslim women wearing the hijab had also increased in the past few years due to the reasons mentioned. Amidst all this, more and more Muslim women had started wearing the hijab to show that it was a part of their religion. The hijab had thus evolved into the most visible and prominent symbol of Islamic culture, especially in the US and Europe, and as a symbol of diversity, which Nike had embraced. Experts believed that after the US President Donald Trump’s immigration ban on a few Muslim countries in 2017, this step by Nike would definitely highlight and promote its culture of ‘inclusivity’.
Apart from sportswear, the companies of the mainstream apparel industry started capitalizing on the booming market for modest clothing20. According to Thomson Reuters’ ‘The Global Islamic Economy report 2015/2016’, the Muslim consumer spending across travel and lifestyle was valued at $1.8 trillion in 2014 and was expected to rise to $2.6 trillion by 2018. According to the 2015-2016 State of the Global Islamic Economy Report, around $230 billion, which was 11% of the global total, on apparel and clothing. The number was projected to grow to $327 billion by 2019. This projected estimate was larger than the combined clothing markets of the UK ($107bn), Germany ($99bn), and India ($96bn). This estimate proved the scope that modest fashion held for the Fashion/Apparel industry.
One major reason why retailers started paying attention to the so far unattended niche segment of Muslim consumers was the demographics of the segment. According to experts, Muslim millennials (born between 1980 and 2000), called ‘Generation M’, were emerging as the next big opportunity for global brands. According to the Pew Research Centre, the Muslim population was growing twice as fast as that of non-Muslims and close to two thirds of the Muslims were under their 30s, as of 2017. “In today’s world, Muslims have the largest population of millennials, and they’re demanding to be more and more stylish,”21 stated Alia Khan, chairwoman of the Islamic Fashion and Design Council (IFDC). Apparently, Nike did not want to miss out on a market worth US$360 billion, which could boost its sales and hence it started catering to this market with the Pro Hijab. Using a range of appropriate marketing models and theories, explain how Nike adopts a marketing orientation in developing. Other companies such as Burberry, Mango, DKNY, and H&M had already started creating special collections catering to the Muslim market. In 2016, Dolce and Gabbana released a line of hijabs and abayas (burqa) (see below the List of Major Players in Modest Fashion Industry).
Table 1: List of Major Players in Modest Fashion Industry
MN5006 Serving Customers in Global Markets
Name of the Company
Products in Modest Fashion
ModLi (Online Store)
Modest swimwear, formal and casual dresses, shirts, and skirts, as well as head coverings and accessories
Japanese fashion chain – ‘Uniqlo’
Uniqlo x Hana Tajima Collection with a line of hijabs
Dolce & Gabbana
Collection of hijabs and abayas
Bella Kareema Fashion
Collection of Modest wear. Bella Kareema was selling hundreds of items per year and taking part in fashion shows in London, the UAE, and Turkey
DKNY, Tommy Hilfiger, Oscar de la Renta, Burberry, Monique Lhuillier, Zara, and Mango
Special collections for Ramadan
ResportOn, The Hijab Shop, Hummel, Oiselle, Asiya, Capsters, Friniggi and others
Performance/Sports hijab for athletes
WHAT’S IN IT FOR NIKE?
Apart from tapping a new market segment, this new reach in the Middle-East would also provide some cushioning to Nike against the growing competition it was facing, particularly in emerging markets like China. This could prove helpful to offset any decline it might face in China, while also tapping into a major market segment, said observers. This was because many Western companies had been looking at expanding into other markets because of the slowing economic growth in China. Also, looking at the size and consumer power of the Middle-East, many companies would come up with several products tailored to the tastes and needs of the region.
Tapping new market segments was not new to Nike. Apart from announcing the launch of the Pro Hijab, Nike had also launched its first plus size range, featuring sizes from XL to 3XL, in the hopes of catering to women of all body types. This range was launched after several months of customer complaints about Nike’s lack of proper plus sized wear. Analysts believe that this might work well for Nike due to the increasing number of obese/overweight people over the years.
Nike’s Pro-Hijab launch followed a broader effort from the company to bring modest, Muslim- friendly clothing into the mainstream and thereby appeal to a more diverse consumer base. Nike also stated that the hijab was the latest step in its commitment to the Middle Eastern region, where it owned 24 stores in the UAE and 28 in Saudi Arabia. Nike had also started an Arabic version of its training app to appeal to the Arab speaking population.
In the past, the big brands hadn’t seen the need or market for the hijab as hijabi athletes were unheard of earlier. As the number of such players started increasing in almost every sport, their needs could no longer be ignored. Though there were a few companies that were already making sports hijabs, Nike was the first leading multinational sports company to do so. With its annual net sales in billions and wide global and visible reach, Nike could actually help in bringing more Muslim athletes into the fold. “(It will) encourage a whole new generation to pursue sports without feeling there is a limitation because of modesty or dress-code,”22 Haddad said.
Though there were several Muslim-owned companies that were already making sports hijabs, this latest venture by Nike would probably inspire other big sports brands to enter this growing female Islamic sportswear market, which would give more options to the Muslim women athletes whose sports needs had been left unattended for a very long time.
Nike Inc. Operations Management: 10 Decisions, Productivity
A pair of Nike Zoom Elite 2 shoes. Nike Inc. operations management includes standards and policies to support optimal productivity in all strategic decision areas of the global business. (Photo: Public Domain)
Nike Inc. is a leading global manufacturer and seller of sports shoes, apparel and equipment. This market position is partly a result of effective and efficient operations management (OM). To ensure success, Nike’s managers must continually examine and improve strategies and approaches used in the 10 strategic decision areas of operations management. These areas pertain to the main decisions in managing streamlined operations and productivity that effectively address business goals and objectives. Nike’s operations management considers talent management, product development, and total quality management as some of the most important variables in these 10 strategic decision areas.
The 10 strategic decisions of operations management (OM) at Nike Inc. cover a wide variety of issues, considering the company’s global market for sports shoes, apparel and equipment. Nike effectively addresses these decision areas through standards consistently applied in operations management throughout the global organization.
Nike’s Operations Management, 10 Decision Areas
1. Design of Goods and Services. This strategic decision area deals with the design of Nike’s athletic footwear and other products. The operations management objective is to ensure that product design aligns with organizational capabilities and business goals. In this case, Nike Inc. focuses on designs based on advanced technology and current market preferences.
2. Quality Management. Nike emphasizes quality in its processes and products. The objective in this strategic decision area is to satisfy consumers’ expectations about product quality. The company’s operations management addresses this concern through high quality standards and the application of total quality management (TQM) in the production of sports shoes, equipment and apparel.
3. Process and Capacity Design. This strategic decision area requires that Nike’s operations management must prioritize streamlining and efficiency of production. The objective is to ensure adequate, effective, and efficient production. At Nike, operations managers apply continuous improvement strategies to support the company’s production goals and needs based on market dynamics.
4. Location Strategy. Physical location is the typical concern in this strategic decision area of operations management. The objective is to optimize costs and efficiency through proximity to employees, suppliers and the target market. In the case of Nike Inc., the operations managers apply a corporate strategy that chooses production facility locations based on costs and nearness to the most significant markets. For example, Nike Inc. has sports shoe suppliers in Southeast Asia because of the cost advantage based on cheaper labor in the region.
5. Layout Design and Strategy. Nike’s operations management deals with the layout design of its facilities. The objective in this strategic decision area is to optimize workflow based on human resources, capacity requirements, technology, and inventory requirements. Nike’s operations managers apply corporate layout design and strategy to company-owned facilities only. For example, the firm uses office layouts where employees can move easily. The factories that produce the athletic shoes, apparel and equipment are not under Nike’s control in terms of layout design and strategy.
6. Job Design and Human Resources. Human resource adequacy and maintenance are the objective in this strategic decision area of operations management. Nike Inc. satisfies this concern through internal leadership development, along with coaching and mentoring. The company also has regular evaluations of job assignments to ensure person-job fit.
7. Supply Chain Management. Nike has excellent supply chain management, which facilitates efficient production to support the global sports shoes, apparel and equipment business. The objective in this strategic decision area of operations management is to align the supply chain with the company’s overall strategic aims. Nike Inc. satisfies this objective through supply chain automation and optimization of transport distances among suppliers, production facilities, distributors and retailers.
8. Inventory Management. The objective in this strategic decision area is to maintain operations management that minimizes inventory costs while maximizing its effectiveness and efficiency. Nike’s operations managers apply the perpetual method of inventory management, which involves continuous monitoring and movement of inventory from the supply chain to the distributors and retailers.
9. Scheduling. Nike’s scheduling approach is primarily concerned with corporate operations and the coordination of the supply chain with distribution and retail operations. In this strategic decision area of operations management, the aim is to maximize resource utilization. Nike Inc. managers satisfy this aim through automation. Corporate office schedules are standardized, while supply chain schedules are adjusted according to the conditions of the market. Nike applies changes to the supply chain based on market demand for its athletic footwear, equipment and apparel.
10. Maintenance. Nike’s maintenance strategy considers adequacy of all resources. Adequacy of human resources, facilities and capacity is the objective in this strategic decision area. Nike’s operations management implements continuous recruitment programs to support HR needs, as well as reward programs and career development strategies for maximum retention of employees. For facilities, the company has dedicated teams to regularly evaluate facility and equipment integrity and requirements. The companies that manufacture Nike shoes, apparel and equipment are responsible for their own maintenance.
Productivity at Nike Inc.
Nike Inc. operations management supports maximum productivity of corporate offices, the supply chain, distribution network, and company-owned retail facilities. There are a variety of measures applied to determine actual productivity levels. In this case, Nike uses the following criteria to measure productivity in some business areas:
- Revenue per square foot (Productivity of Nike’s retail stores)
- Pair of shoes per hour (Productivity of Nike suppliers)
- Items per day (Productivity of inventory personnel)
- Documents per day (Productivity of Nike’s corporate offices)
Nike Inc. Stakeholders: A CSR Analysis
Updated Feb 7, 2017 Daniel Kissinger
A pair of Nike basketball shoes. Nike Inc. stakeholders’ interests are satisfied through the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy that prioritizes consumers and communities. (Photo: Public Domain)
Nike Inc. maintains corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs to address the interests of its major stakeholder groups. According to Archie Carroll, stakeholders are individuals or groups that have a significant stake in what the business does. The company influences them, and they influence the company in return. The brand image and sales performance of Nike sports shoes, apparel, and equipment are significantly subject to the effects of stakeholders’ interests and corresponding actions. Nike addresses these stakeholders’ interests through a number of corporate social responsibility programs. However, the Nike Foundation is the main arm of the company’s corporate social responsibility strategy.
Nike Inc. stakeholders’ interests are satisfied through the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. The corresponding CSR policy and strategy are based on Nike’s consideration for communities and customers, whose interests significantly influence the company’s design and production of its athletic footwear, equipment and apparel.
Nike’s Stakeholder Groups & CSR Initiatives
As a global business, Nike Inc. has a wide variety of stakeholders with significant influence on the sales of the firm’s sports shoes and other products. However, the company’s corporate social responsibility programs target only a number of major stakeholder groups. Nike has the following stakeholders, arranged according to the firm’s prioritization:
- Customers (top priority)
- Interest Groups
Customers. Nike’s corporate social responsibility strategy gives top priority to customers as a stakeholder group. Customers are significant because they affect the company’s revenues from the sports shoes, apparel and equipment market. In the case of Nike Inc., these stakeholders’ interests include high quality products and reasonable prices. The company addresses these interests through significant R&D investments. For example, Nike continues to provide products with high quality and advanced technology. Considering high profitability and growing sales revenues, Nike’s corporate social responsibility effectively satisfies the interests of customers as a top-priority stakeholder group.
Communities. The stakeholder group of communities has a significant influence on Nike’s corporate social responsibility standing. Consumers tend to buy more of a product that has a positive impact on communities. The interests of these stakeholders include support for the development of communities. Nike Inc. addresses these interests through the Nike Foundation, which serves as the company’s primary means of supporting community development initiatives. For example, in 2005, the Nike Foundation started its community development programs in developing countries, with focus on supporting the empowerment of girls. The company also has a variety of “Community Impact” corporate social responsibility programs, such as the Active Schools & Youth Sports program, which donates funds and sports shoes, apparel and equipment to promote physical activity among students. These Community Impact programs align with Nike’s mission and vision statements in considering everyone an athlete. Nike allocates 1.5% of its pre-tax income to support these community development initiatives.
Employees. Nike Inc. recognizes the significance of employees as a stakeholder group that influences organizational effectiveness. For instance, employees’ performance directly translates to business performance. The interests of these stakeholders include fair compensation, career development opportunities, and a sense of purpose. Nike addresses these interests through corporate social responsibility policies and programs that focus on internal leadership development, talent management through coaching and mentoring, and team building. These CSR efforts are expected to maximize Nike’s ability to produce more popular and advanced athletic footwear, apparel and equipment.
Governments. As part of its corporate social responsibility strategy, Nike Inc. identifies governments as a stakeholder group. These stakeholders are important because they affect how Nike operates in terms of its permits, limits and legal actions in certain markets for its sports shoes, equipment and apparel. Governments are interested in legal and regulatory compliance, as well as business contributions to tax revenues and community development. Understandably, the community development interest is addressed through Nike’s corporate social responsibility programs for community development. In addressing the other interests of this stakeholder group, Nike Inc. maintains a number of policies and standards to ensure compliance in all of its business areas. Thus, the firm’s corporate social responsibility strategy satisfies the interests of governments as stakeholders.
Interest Groups. Nike’s corporate social responsibility policies also address the interests of some interest groups. These stakeholders have significant effect on Nike in terms of potential government intervention and in terms of consumer perception regarding the company and its sports shoes, apparel and equipment. The interests of these stakeholders are varied, including fair labor practices, business sustainability, and environmental conservation. Nike Inc. addresses these interests through the Nike Foundation’s initiatives, as well as sponsorships of a variety of related programs. The company also has corporate social responsibility policies for improving labor management and environmental impact. These considerations indicate that Nike Inc. satisfies the concerns of interest groups as stakeholders.
Nike Inc.’s CSR Performance in Addressing Stakeholders’ Interests
Nike’s prioritization of customers reflects the importance of this stakeholder group. The satisfaction of customers directly affects revenues. The company’s corporate social responsibility strategy is also satisfactory in terms of giving second priority to communities, considering the variety of policies and programs to support these stakeholders. While it is understandable that employees determine organizational performance, Nike’s corporate social responsibility support for communities is congruent to its support for customers as a top-priority stakeholder group. Using a range of appropriate marketing models and theories, explain how Nike adopts a marketing orientation in developing. Communities also determine consumers’ buying behaviors. Overall, Nike Inc. is effective in ensuring that its corporate social responsibility programs support the business aim of optimizing revenues from the sale of sports shoes, apparel and equipment worldwide.
1 Rym Ghazal, “UAE Female Athletes react to 2018 Launch of the Nike Pro Hijab,” www.thenational.ae, March 8, 2017
2 A hijab is a veil traditionally worn by Muslim women, as a symbol of modesty, in the presence of adult males outside of their immediate family, which usually
. 3 Muslim refers to a person who follows Islam.
. 4 1 US$ ≈ INR 65.36, as of March 2017
. 5 later known as ASICS
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. 8 Joseph Curtis, “
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. 14 A burqa is an enveloping outer garment worn by Muslim women as part of their Islamic tradition to cover themselves in public.
. 15 Rym Ghazal, “UAE female athletes react to 2018 launch of the Nike Pro Hijab”, www.thenational.ae, March 8, 2017.
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18 On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19 tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds celebrating Bastille Day in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and injuring 434. ISIS claimed the responsibility for this attack.
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